Traditional Houses of Central Java
ARCHITECTURE OF CENTRAL JAVA
Architecture or Arts Building located at Central Java Province region are grouped into two, namely:
a. Traditional architecture, the Art Building native Java has remained alive and growing in the Java community.
The science of the art building by Javanese people commonly called or known as Science Kalang Kalang Wong. Which is the principal buildings in the existing building art Java 5 (five) types, namely:
- Bake-pe, which is building the roof on the one side only.
- Village, which is building with the roof two sides, a ridge in the middle.
- Limasan, ie the roof of a building with four sides, a ridge de middle.
- Joglo, or Tikelan, ie buildings with Soko Guru four sides and roof, a ridge in the middle.
- Tajug or Mosque, which is building with Soko Guru roof four sides, without a ridge, so pointed.
Each form evolved into many different types and variations that are not only related to differences in size, but also with local circumstances. Of the five kinds of basic building Java home is, if there is a merger between the five kinds of buildings will occur with various kinds of Javanese house. For example: selirang pawpaw, papaw setangkep, cere gencet, sinom joglo symbol pendants, and others.
According to the Javanese philosophy of life, forms of the house has its own characteristics and usage. For example Tajug form, it is always used only for buildings that are sacred, for instance for building Mosques, tombs, and where the king's throne, so that the Java community can not be made-shaped house where he lived Tajug.
Complete home often have the forms as well as specific use, among others:
- Gateway: the form of village
- Marquee: forms joglo
- Pringgitan: shape of a pyramid
- Dalem: shape joglo
- Gandhok (left-right): a hoe gowang
- Kitchen: a village
- And others.
But for people who can not afford not possibly be so. Naturally gepak Doro shaped house (roof-shaped building that was flying pigeons flapping their wings) such parts are used for specific uses, for example:
- The front porch: for Pendopo
- Living room: for a family meeting place
- Right-veranda left: to senthong right middle and left senthong
- Another overhang: for warehouse and kitchen.
In some areas there are also beach houses berkolong. It is intended as a precaution when there are floods.
In the Art Building Java for being so forward, then all the frame houses have been given specific names, such as: Ander, dudur, brunjung, usuk peniyung, usuk ri-gereh, reng, blandar, sledge, pillars, saka responders, umpak , and so forth.
Java home building materials is mainly from teak wood. Javanese traditional architecture proved to be very popular not only in Java itself, but to reach out overseas. Indonesian Embassy in Singapore and Malaysia also Soekarno-Hatta International Airport has a traditional Javanese architecture.
Javanese traditional architecture must be seen as the totality of life is contradictory statement of manners put themselves, norms and human values of Java with all the natural conditions of their environment. This architecture works on display galibnya "self-help in togetherness" which wisely and take advantage of any potential local resources and create a harmonious alignment between the "little universe" (microcosm) and the "universe gedhe" (the macrocosm).
Basically Javanese traditional architecture - as well as Bali and other regions - is the architecture which is surrounded by a fence pages. The so-called whole house is often not a single building with solid walls but the page that contains a group of building units with different functions. In outer space and induce each other without a rigid barrier. The structure of the building is a frame structure with wood construction, which stuck like an open umbrella. Just a curtain wall of the room divider, not a wall bearers. A very interesting also for disclosure are those structures are clearly disclosed, fair and honest without trying to cover it up. Similarly, building materials, everything left shows the original character. In addition, Java architecture has a powerful resistance against earthquakes.
The roof of the building always use a wide tritisan, who are very protective of the space underneath the porch or overhang. Spatial structures and thus it is suitable for tropical area with frequent earthquakes and suitable for human life that the fairy has a personality like being in the open air. The page is relieved with sand or gravel pavement is very useful for absorption of rain water. While the trees are planted often have sasraguna (multi function), ie as of shade, filter dust, wind and noise reducer, also a food source for humans and animals often also be used for traditional medicine.
Main source familiar with the building arts to Java to Central Java region is the Kraton and the Kraton Surakarta Mangkunegaran. Also relics of ancient buildings and tombs of ancient mosques such as Masjid Demak, Kudus Mosque with a minaret that particular style, Tomb of Demak, Kadilangu Cemetery, Grave Mengadeg, etc..
In addition to native Java building art of building homes, there are also art relic building from the era of Javanese and Syailendrawangça Sanjayawangça, during the regional power in Central Java. It typically uses during the building construction material river stone, there is also the use of red stone, not wood legacy we meet again, but there used to be possible.
The function of the buildings had all kinds: as a place of worship, memorials, cemeteries, meditation place, and so forth. Style of religious buildings, there is Mahayana Buddhism, for example: Borobudur. Trimurti are patterned, for example: Dieng. While the character of the mix with the local belief, for example: Temple Sukuh and Çeta.
Bake-a House Style:
Many of us have encountered as a place selling drinks, rice and others who are on the edge of the road. Where was developed to function as a place of watchmen, where the car / garage, factory, and so forth.
Kampung House Style:
Generally as a residence, both in cities and in villages and in the mountains. The development of this form is also used as a residence.
Limasan House Style:
Especially visible on the roof which has a 4 (four) sides of the field, wearing dudur. Most place to stay. Development with the addition of patio or porch, as well as some rooms will be created sinom forms, curses float, symbol pendants, trajumas, and others. Only the form unusual trajumas used as a residence.
Tajug House Style:
The main features of the spike-shaped roof, with a pillar-blandar blandar intercropping, berdenah square, the floor is always on top without a story. Used as holy places, such as: Mosque, where the king's throne, tomb. There's nothing to shelter.
Joglo House Style:
Characterized; roof consists of 4 (four) pillar side with pemidangannya (alengnya) and berblandar intercropping. The building is generally used as a pavilion and also for the residence (palace).
B. Modern architecture; the art buildings in the Central Java province which has a mixture of styles between the original building art with the influence of art outside the building, or outside with a mixture of outside or beyond the original. Alloying elements of the art building with one another is especially visible in the construction of the building, or in the form of its roof. From the easy part of this look, for example on the roof, people can recognize that the building was easily blend artistic elements. Types of buildings including the modern architecture can serve as a residence, house of worship, school buildings, conference hall, restaurant, and others. For example, the Holy Mosque, which in addition to the original Java-shaped building that is Tajug, also has a bale-shaped tower kul-kul Balinese arts and culture, has a Persian-style gates. Government offices of the colonial Dutch heritage that has many pillars with Kapiteel Yonis, Doris atauKornilis.
Monuments including Modern Architecture; Memorial Theater Ambarawa, Diponegoro Monument in Magelang, Tugu Muda Monument in Semarang, and others.