Selasa, 12 Mei 2015

Traditional Houses of Central Java

Traditional Houses of Central Java


Architecture or Arts Building located at Central Java Province region are grouped into two, namely:
a. Traditional architecture, the Art Building native Java has remained alive and growing in the Java community.
The science of the art building by Javanese people commonly called or known as Science Kalang Kalang Wong. Which is the principal buildings in the existing building art Java 5 (five) types, namely:
- Bake-pe, which is building the roof on the one side only.
- Village, which is building with the roof two sides, a ridge in the middle.
- Limasan, ie the roof of a building with four sides, a ridge de middle.
- Joglo, or Tikelan, ie buildings with Soko Guru four sides and roof, a ridge in the middle.
- Tajug or Mosque, which is building with Soko Guru roof four sides, without a ridge, so pointed.

Each form evolved into many different types and variations that are not only related to differences in size, but also with local circumstances. Of the five kinds of basic building Java home is, if there is a merger between the five kinds of buildings will occur with various kinds of Javanese house. For example: selirang pawpaw, papaw setangkep, cere gencet, sinom joglo symbol pendants, and others.
According to the Javanese philosophy of life, forms of the house has its own characteristics and usage. For example Tajug form, it is always used only for buildings that are sacred, for instance for building Mosques, tombs, and where the king's throne, so that the Java community can not be made-shaped house where he lived Tajug.
Complete home often have the forms as well as specific use, among others:
- Gateway: the form of village
- Marquee: forms joglo
- Pringgitan: shape of a pyramid
- Dalem: shape joglo
- Gandhok (left-right): a hoe gowang
- Kitchen: a village
- And others.
But for people who can not afford not possibly be so. Naturally gepak Doro shaped house (roof-shaped building that was flying pigeons flapping their wings) such parts are used for specific uses, for example:
- The front porch: for Pendopo
- Living room: for a family meeting place
- Right-veranda left: to senthong right middle and left senthong
- Another overhang: for warehouse and kitchen.

In some areas there are also beach houses berkolong. It is intended as a precaution when there are floods.
In the Art Building Java for being so forward, then all the frame houses have been given specific names, such as: Ander, dudur, brunjung, usuk peniyung, usuk ri-gereh, reng, blandar, sledge, pillars, saka responders, umpak , and so forth.
Java home building materials is mainly from teak wood. Javanese traditional architecture proved to be very popular not only in Java itself, but to reach out overseas. Indonesian Embassy in Singapore and Malaysia also Soekarno-Hatta International Airport has a traditional Javanese architecture.
Javanese traditional architecture must be seen as the totality of life is contradictory statement of manners put themselves, norms and human values of Java with all the natural conditions of their environment. This architecture works on display galibnya "self-help in togetherness" which wisely and take advantage of any potential local resources and create a harmonious alignment between the "little universe" (microcosm) and the "universe gedhe" (the macrocosm).
Basically Javanese traditional architecture - as well as Bali and other regions - is the architecture which is surrounded by a fence pages. The so-called whole house is often not a single building with solid walls but the page that contains a group of building units with different functions. In outer space and induce each other without a rigid barrier. The structure of the building is a frame structure with wood construction, which stuck like an open umbrella. Just a curtain wall of the room divider, not a wall bearers. A very interesting also for disclosure are those structures are clearly disclosed, fair and honest without trying to cover it up. Similarly, building materials, everything left shows the original character. In addition, Java architecture has a powerful resistance against earthquakes.
The roof of the building always use a wide tritisan, who are very protective of the space underneath the porch or overhang. Spatial structures and thus it is suitable for tropical area with frequent earthquakes and suitable for human life that the fairy has a personality like being in the open air. The page is relieved with sand or gravel pavement is very useful for absorption of rain water. While the trees are planted often have sasraguna (multi function), ie as of shade, filter dust, wind and noise reducer, also a food source for humans and animals often also be used for traditional medicine.
Main source familiar with the building arts to Java to Central Java region is the Kraton and the Kraton Surakarta Mangkunegaran. Also relics of ancient buildings and tombs of ancient mosques such as Masjid Demak, Kudus Mosque with a minaret that particular style, Tomb of Demak, Kadilangu Cemetery, Grave Mengadeg, etc..
In addition to native Java building art of building homes, there are also art relic building from the era of Javanese and Syailendrawangça Sanjayawangça, during the regional power in Central Java. It typically uses during the building construction material river stone, there is also the use of red stone, not wood legacy we meet again, but there used to be possible.
The function of the buildings had all kinds: as a place of worship, memorials, cemeteries, meditation place, and so forth. Style of religious buildings, there is Mahayana Buddhism, for example: Borobudur. Trimurti are patterned, for example: Dieng. While the character of the mix with the local belief, for example: Temple Sukuh and Çeta.

Bake-a House Style:
Many of us have encountered as a place selling drinks, rice and others who are on the edge of the road. Where was developed to function as a place of watchmen, where the car / garage, factory, and so forth.
Kampung House Style:
Generally as a residence, both in cities and in villages and in the mountains. The development of this form is also used as a residence.
Limasan House Style:
Especially visible on the roof which has a 4 (four) sides of the field, wearing dudur. Most place to stay. Development with the addition of patio or porch, as well as some rooms will be created sinom forms, curses float, symbol pendants, trajumas, and others. Only the form unusual trajumas used as a residence.
Tajug House Style:
The main features of the spike-shaped roof, with a pillar-blandar blandar intercropping, berdenah square, the floor is always on top without a story. Used as holy places, such as: Mosque, where the king's throne, tomb. There's nothing to shelter.
Joglo House Style:
Characterized; roof consists of 4 (four) pillar side with pemidangannya (alengnya) and berblandar intercropping. The building is generally used as a pavilion and also for the residence (palace).

B. Modern architecture; the art buildings in the Central Java province which has a mixture of styles between the original building art with the influence of art outside the building, or outside with a mixture of outside or beyond the original. Alloying elements of the art building with one another is especially visible in the construction of the building, or in the form of its roof. From the easy part of this look, for example on the roof, people can recognize that the building was easily blend artistic elements. Types of buildings including the modern architecture can serve as a residence, house of worship, school buildings, conference hall, restaurant, and others. For example, the Holy Mosque, which in addition to the original Java-shaped building that is Tajug, also has a bale-shaped tower kul-kul Balinese arts and culture, has a Persian-style gates. Government offices of the colonial Dutch heritage that has many pillars with Kapiteel Yonis, Doris atauKornilis.
Monuments including Modern Architecture; Memorial Theater Ambarawa, Diponegoro Monument in Magelang, Tugu Muda Monument in Semarang, and others.



East Java Community

Culture and customs
Culture and customs of the Javanese people in the western part of East Java received a lot of influence from the Middle Java, so that this region is known as Mataraman; indicates that the area was once the domain of the Sultanate of Mataram. These areas include the ex-Residency of Madiun (Madison, Ngawi, Magetan, Ponorogo, Pacitan), ex-Kediri Residency (Kediri, Tulungagung, Blitar, Psychology) and partially Bojonegoro. Like in Central Java, wayang kulit and ketoprak quite popular in this area.

Western coastal area of East Java is heavily influenced by Islamic culture. This area covers an area of Tuban, Lamongan, and Gresik. Formerly the northern coast of East Java is the entrance area and the center of the development of Islamic religion. Five of the nine members of the Walisongo buried in this area.

Residency in the region of ex-Surabaya (including Sidoarjo, Mojokerto, and Jombang) and Malang, has little cultural influence Mataraman, considering this area quite far from the cultural center of Java: Surakarta and Yogyakarta.

Mores in the horseshoe region is heavily influenced by the culture of Madura, given the Madurese population in this region. Osing community mores is a cultural blend of Java, Madura, and Bali. While customs Tenggerese heavily influenced by Hindu culture.

Villagers in East Java, as well as in Central Java, have a bond based on friendship and territorial. Various ceremonies are held, among others: tingkepan (ceremony for seven months pregnant with their first child), babaran (ceremony before the birth of the baby), sepasaran (the ceremony after the baby was five days), pitonan (the ceremony after the seven-month-old baby), circumcision, fiance.

Building forms the western part of East Java (as in Ngawi, Madiun, Magetan, and Ponorogo) is generally similar to the building form the centerpiece of Java (Surakarta). East Javanese buildings generally have joglo shape, form a pyramid (gepak virgin), the form srontongan (empyak setangkep).

Dutch East Indies colonial period also left a number of ancient buildings. Cities and towns in East Java, there are many buildings built in the colonial era, especially in Surabaya and Malang.

Most Javanese are nominally embraced Islam. But the Protestant and Catholic religions too much. They are also found in rural areas. Buddhists and Hindus also were also found among the Java community. There is also a tribal religious beliefs as a religion of Java, called Javanist. This belief is mainly based on animistic beliefs with the Hindu-Buddhist influence is strong. Java community famous for its nature of syncretism of belief. All foreign culture is absorbed and interpreted according to the values of Java so that the trust somebody sometimes become blurred.

Java with Javanese society ideology ("Javanese") is often regarded as people who live in an atmosphere of primitive beliefs, which have special properties, such as: maintaining an atmosphere of living in harmony (harmony) with the surrounding living environment, which includes: the harmony between human beings and others (the relationship between "Kawulo" and "Gusti"), and the relationship between humans and the natural environment around it (the relationship between the "microcosmos" and "macrocosmos"). Java needs of human life, can be simplified into 3 (three) groups: "food", "clothes" and "boards". The meaning of food needs for the Java community is on one hand the physical demands, while on the other hand, is a metaphysical claim, such as: spiritual, spiritual and symbolic. Furthermore, people need Java to provide security psychiatric clothing (sense) and protect themselves from environmental influences, both natural and social environment. While the need for "boards", for the Javanese will be interpreted as a requirement: "longkangan" (space), "panggonan" (a place to live), "panepen" (place of residence / "settle-ment") and "palungguhan" ( seating / interact). Also home also has a meaning as a symbol that he has succeeded in life in the world or have been steady socio-economic status.

The form of the Javanese house is influenced by two approaches:

1. Geometric approaches are ruled by their own strength
2. Geophysical approaches that depend on the strength of the natural environment.

Javanese traditional house form from time to time is always changing its form. Broadly speaking residence of java can be differentiated into:
1. Houses Forms Joglo
2. Houses Forms Limasan
3. Houses of Kampong
4. The mosque and the house or Tarub Tajug
5. Forms of home baked - Pe

Traditional Building Joglo.

Joglo characteristic roof, the roof can be seen from the form which is a fusion between two areas of the roof triangle with two trapezoidal roof areas, which each have a different angle and not at large. Roof joglo always located in the middle and always higher and flanked by a porch roof. This combination forms the roof there are two kinds, namely: Sari Coat Roof and Roof Joglo Joglo Hanging Coat. Sari Coat Joglo roof where the combined discrete Joglo roof with continuous spliced Porch roof, while there Hanging Coat roof vent and light. According Dakung (1987) there was some variation in building form
Joglo include the following:
(1). Joglo jokes,
(2). Joglo sinom,
(3). Joglo Jompongan,
(4). Joglo musicians,
(5). Joglo Mangkurat,
(6). Joglo Hageng, and
(7). Semar Joglo Tinandhu.
Joglo Limasan, Joglo Tinandhu Semar, Joglo
Sinom, Joglo Jompongan Joglo musicians and ordinary citizens have been used, while Joglo Mangkurat, Joglo Hageng and Joglo Semar Tinandhu widely used of the nobility, as well as keratin servants in the palace (palace officials).

Semar Joglo Tinandhu.

Joglo Tinandu Semar (Semar carried / Semar borne) was inspired from the form of litter. Joglo is usually used to regol or royal gates, with the characteristics:
* Plan rectangular
* Foundations bebatur, ie land flattened and higher than the adjacent soil. Umpak mounted above bebatur already given wedokan diarrhea, umpak will later be joined by pole saka.
* Wear two main pillars as the pillars supporting the roof and 8 saka pananggap brunjung that serves as a buffer which are beyond the pillars. The underside of each saka given lanang diarrhea for diarrhea connected to and strengthened by umpak wedokan
* There are two sledge as a support beam stretcher
* Having three levels of overlap are supported beam stretcher
* The roof has four types of empyak namely; empyak brunjung, empyak Kalanchoe at the top and empyak empyak penangkur responders as well as the bottom.
* On the roof there Molo
Using usuk * rigereh, usuk that at the top rests on dudur while resting on the bottom of the sled, and mounted the beam perpendicular.
* Usually used to regol (entrance)

Because the main columns / pillars in this joglo replaced by a wall connection, then the space beneath the roof has a magnitude higher in magnitude uleng limited space only. There are still affected air outside air, but it feels cooler because the existing roof slope which gives the difference of air between the outer space with space in joglo.
In this tinandu Semar joglo air to move in a straight through a gap between two walls of the connection. Air movement occurs freely directly in the middle of this joglo, because it is not blocked by walls, but on the side of right and left, no air can flow into the other side, because the connection is blocked by the wall to the top joglo. Udaara again moves downward through the gap into the space next to the wall connection, and flows into various directions.

Joglo Sari Coat

Joglo joglo sexual intercourse with a continuous roof system construction. This form is the most widely used in traditional building java.
Joglo forms that use sexual intercourse, with the characteristics:
* The rectangular plan
* Wear bebatur foundation, namely the land flattened and higher than the adjacent soil. Above this bebatur umpak installed already given wedokan diarrhea.
There are 4 * as the retaining pillars that form the roof brunjung pamidangan space that is the central space, and 12 pillars supporting the roof pananggap pananggap (pole followers), each supported by umpak saka diarrhea system
* Wear blandar, sledge, sunduk, and kilil. blandar and each sled is equipped with a stabilizer sunduk and seam.
* Using the overlap with the five levels. The first is called pananggap beam, beam into two so called overlap, the beam into three and four is called intercropping, and the last block is a bulging lid that serves as a support beam usuk ends of the roof.
* Uleng / space formed by the overlapping beams under the roof there are two (double uleng)
* There godhegan a stabilizer which is usually a snake-shaped ornament hose.
* Using empyak roof system. 4 empyak system used: Kalanchoe brunjung and at the top, and pananggap and penangkur at the bottom
* There Molo beam at the top of which was tied by intelligence and dudur.
* Using the usuk peniyung usuk mounted side or concentric to the Molo. Joglo It also does not have a patio

penghawaan on joglo house was designed by adjusting with the environment. joglo house, which usually have the form of a terraced roof, getting into the middle, the distance between the floor with a higher roof design is not without purpose, but each of these roof height to be a relationship stages in the human movement toward home joglo with air that is felt by the man himself. When humans are at least joglo home side, as the border between outer space with space in, people still feel the atmosphere of air from the outside, but when people move closer to the center, the more cool air is felt, this is because the volume of space under roof, the more to the increasingly large. Like the existing theory on the physics building,

Actual volume effect using the principle that a larger volume of air will become hot longer when compared with the small air volume.

When humans return to exit, the air was again amended, from the air felt cool air toward the outdoors. Can be seen if penghawaan joglo at home, consider an adjustment to the weather surrounding the human body.

Joglo penghawaan system in this intercourse, as in joglo penghawaan system in general, wind / air moving in parallel, across the open space, in the middle of the room, bordered by the main poles / pillars, air moving upward, but return to move down . This happens because joglo sexual intercourse has no ventilation holes, because it is designed for continuous roof.

System Structure

Joglo building structure system, according Saragih (1983) 14) can be divided into two parts, namely:
(1). System Structure and Main Frame
(2). Frame Structure System "Pengarak" (Followers).

Main Frame Building Systems Joglo consists of three parts, namely: "Brunjung", "Soko Guru" and "Umpak".


Foundation or "umpak" is elevated 70cm using concrete and cast stone difinish Wonosari intended as a mirror of this building comes. Typical for this foundation is the foundation of view and positions which are above ground not in the soil. This foundation can be seen with naked eye.


Gebyog is fabricated house walls made of wood. Gebyog provide a sense of cool in the daytime, and warm at night. Gebyog that is in use for Omah Limasan (palace) is made with the motive of the Holy carvings, made from old wood new / old. Gebyog framework integrates with building construction.

Carved Motifs
Carve symbolizes a story line / picture typically in the form of abstract, plants, humans, animals, puppet characters.

Joglo house has 16 pieces pole or column as a cantilever roof construction consists of four fruit "pillars" with each pole-sized (15cm x 15cm) and 12 pieces each pole awning size (11cm x 11cm), and has 5 "Overlapping Blandar Sari" complete with "kendhit" or "koloran" functioning as a beam penyiku main construction building. Entire original building material structures using teak wood and has a size of 8.4 mx 7.6 m.

Each pole has a name according to its location on the building. One or more columns that support the roof of the most high-called pillar, the pillar that is located over the outside of the pillar is the cornerstone Rowo, while the poles that support the roof of the outermost called the cornerstone patio.

In addition, there are several types of poles used for other joglo roofed building, which is the cornerstone bentung, which is hung between the roof top to roof beneath. Meanwhile, the cornerstone Santen is a pillar that does not directly support the roof, but the length of the girder support at a large building roofed joglo.

Shaped roof joglo much use of wood materials, ranging from plain wood to wood full of ornaments. This resulted in expenses that must be channeled to get to the ground by each pillar quite heavy. Actual load is carried by the pillar can be calculated, that is by knowing the roof area supported by each pillar. The area is then multiplied by the weight per square meter roof, so that got the roof load to be borne by each pillar or pole. As a result, the total load must be distributed by a major foundation is smaller than the voltage of land per square centimeter. When the load is distributed by a major foundation is greater than the ground voltage, the foundations will be sunk.
Joglo roof frame formed by a number of building elements, namely: (1). Reng, (2). Usuk, (3). "Molo", (4). "Ander", (5). "Dudur" and (6). "Blandar". Overlapping while Sari is the blocks which were prepared by mixing techniques, and serves to support the weight of the roof. Sari overlap can be divided into two parts: Part-wing ("nick") and Part in ("ulen").